45, 752-777.
Van EgmondH.P.1989a. Introduction, and significance of mycotoxins. In: van Egmond, H.P. (Ed.), Mycotoxins in Dairy Products. Elsevier, New York, pp. 1- 9.
Vs1-6-casein andVs1-casein: 6-casein complex. Journal of Dairy Research, 47, 123-129.
Wang L, Yokoyama K, Takahasi H, Kase N, Hanya Y, Yashiro K, Nishimura K. 2001. Identification of species in Aspergillus section Flavi based on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene .Int J Food Microbiol, 71:75-86.
WangY ,Li.Y.2007.”Genome-shuffling improved acid tolerance and l-lactic acid volumetric productivity in Lactobacillus rhamnosus”. Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of Ministry of Education,Jilin University, 2519 Jiefang Road, Changchun 130023, PR China.
Wilson DA,Payne GA. 1994.Factors affecting Aspergillusflavus group infection and aflatoxin contamination of corps.Academic Press:309-325.
Wiseman DW,Marth EH, 1983, Behavior of aflatoxin M1 in yogurt, buttermilk and kefir. Journal of Food Protection.46:115-118.
Yousef A. E, and Marth E H. 1989. Stability and degradation of aflatoxin M1. Mycotoxinsin DairyProducts, edited by H. P. van Egmond (New York: Elsevier), pp. 127-161.
Yousef A.E, Marth E.H. 1985. Degradation of aflatoxin M1 in milk by ultraviolet energy. J. Food Prot. 48: 697- 698.
Zhang XB and, Oath Y.2006. Antimutagenicity and binding of lactic acid bacteria from Chinese cheese to mutagenic pyrolyzates. J. Dairy Sci., 73: 2702-10 .

پیوست‌ها

پیوست‌ها

پیوست الف – 1Univariate Analysis of Variance

Between-Subjects Factors

Value Label
N
زمان (ساعت)

9

2

9

3

9

4

9

6

9

9

9
گروه آزمودنی

شاهد
18

1
آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.05 ppb
18

2
آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.1 ppb
18
الف -2

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: pH
Source
Type III Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Corrected Model
4.175a
17
.246
31.775
.000
Intercept
1939.035
1
1939.035
250854.656
.000
hour
4.035
5
.807
104.414
.000
Group
.113
2
.057
7.322
.002
hour * Group
.027
10
.003
.346
.961
Error
.278
36
.008

Total
1943.488
54

Corrected Total
4.454
53

a. R Squared = .938 (Adjusted R Squared = .908)

الف – 3 Post Hoc Tests
pH
Duncana,b
زمان (ساعت)
N
Subset

1
2
3
4
5
9
9
5.5981

6
9

5.8218

4
9

5.8941

3
9

5.9998

2
9

6.1799


9

6.4603
Sig.

1.000
.090
1.000
1.000
1.000
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
Based on observed means.
The error term is Mean Square(Error) = .008.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 9.000.
b. Alpha = 0.05.

الف – 4
pH
Duncana,b
گروه آزمودنی
N
Subset

1
2
شاهد
18
5.9424

آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.05 ppb
18
5.9815

آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.1 ppb
18

6.0530
Sig.

.191
1.000
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
Based on observed means.
The error term is Mean Square(Error) = .008.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 18.000.
b. Alpha = 0.05.

ب -1
Univariate Analysis of Variance
Between-Subjects Factors

Value Label
N
زمان (ساعت)
1

9

3

9

6

9

9

9
گروه آزمودنی

شاهد
12

1
آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.05 ppb
12

2
آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.1 ppb
12
ب-2
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: لگاریتم جمعیت میکروبی (cfu/g)
Source
Type III Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Corrected Model
106.399a
11
9.673
711.721
.000
Intercept
2116.815
1
2116.815
155757.000
.000
hour
105.543
3
35.181
2588.651
.000
Group
.759
2
.379
27.921
.000
hour * Group
.097
6
.016
1.189
.346
Error
.326
24
.014

Total
2223.540
36

Corrected Total
106.725
35

a. R Squared = .997 (Adjusted R Squared = .996)

ب-3Homogeneous Subsets
لگاریتم جمعیت میکروبی (cfu/g)
Duncana,b
زمان (ساعت)
N
Subset

1
2
3
4
1
9
5.5062

3
9

6.7972

6
9

8.2637

9
9

10.1053
Sig.

1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
Based on observed means.
The error term is Mean Square(Error) = .014.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 9.000.
b. Alpha = 0.05.

ج-1
Univariate Analysis of Variance

Between-Subjects Factors

Value Label
N
زمان (هفته)
1

9

2

9

3

9
گروه آزمودنی

شاهد
9

1
آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.05 ppb
9

2
آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.1 ppb
9

ج-2
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable: لگاریتم جمعیت میکروبی (cfu/g)
Source
Type III Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Corrected Model
65.558a
8
8.195
33.655
.000
Intercept
1698.570
1
1698.570
6975.751
.000
week
62.097
2
31.048
127.510
.000
Group
2.491
2
1.245
5.115
.017
week * Group
.971
4
.243
.997
.435
Error
4.383
18
.243

Total
1768.511
27

Corrected Total
69.941
26

a. R Squared = .937 (Adjusted R Squared = .909)

د-1
Homogeneous Subsets

لگاریتم جمعیت میکروبی (cfu/g)
Duncana,b
گروه آزمودنی
N
Subset

1
2
3
آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.1 ppb
12
7.5041

آفلاتوکسین با غلظت 0.05 ppb
12

این مطلب رو هم توصیه می کنم بخونین:   پایان نامه با واژه های کلیدی استان کردستان

7.6432

شاهد
12

7.8571
Sig.

1.000
1.000
1.000
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
Based on observed means.
The error term is Mean Square(Error) = .014.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 12.000.
b. Alpha = 0.05.
ه-1
لگاریتم جمعیت میکروبی (cfu/g)
Duncana,b
زمان (هفته)
N
Subset

1
2
3
3
9
6.5746

2
9

7.1718

1
9

10.0484
Sig.

1.000
1.000
1.000
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
Based on observed means.
The error term is Mean Square(Error) = .243.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 9.000.
b. Alpha = .05.

Abstract
Aflatoxine M1 (AFM1) is one of the important micotoxins found in milk and dairy products. It is the metabolic product of aflatoxine B1. Today, it is possible to decrise micotoxins in the nutrients or livestock food by applying physical and chemical methods or microbial factors. The aim of this study is to achieve a healthy way to leave out aflatoxine toxicity in the probiotic dairy products free harm for human nutritionally. In this study, ice cream samples were obtained from reconstituted milk without primary aflatoxine. During the process, in all samples (control and probiotic), oflatoxin changes were investigated in two levels (0/1, 0/05ppb). The growth changes of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 in MRS aerobic, anaerobic environment at 37 ?c were studied. To determine the aflatoxine in ice cream samples, HPLC method was used. For this reason, 20 samples of aflatoxine M1 with concentrations of 0/1 and 0/05ppb and acetonitrile 30% were applied as solvent. The statistical analytical results showed the reduction level of oftlaxoin at the end of the hot – house stage for the concentrations of 0/1 and 0/05ppb were 22/4 and 29/5, respectively. There was a significant decrease (P<0/01). At the end of the fourth week of ice cream storge, the reduction level of aflatoxine in both levels (0/1, 0/05ppb) were 30/6 and 32/1, respectively with no significant difference (P>0/01). The microbial population growth of L. rhamnosus GG and B. lactis BB12 at the fermentation stage in three samples has been significant increase (P<0/05). At the end of the fermentation stage for three M1 aflatoxine concentrations (0/1, 0/05ppb), logarithm of L. rhamnosus GG and B. lactis BB12 microbial population were 10/01, 10/02, 10/32 and 9/00, 9/30, 9/48 CFU g ?1, respectively. Also, aflatoxine concentration had an effect on the microbial population growth of both types significantly (P<0/05). At the maintenance time, the reduction level of microbial population logarithm for both probiotic types in higher aflatoxine concentration in comparison to samples containing lower aflatoxine concentration had no significant difference (P>0/05).
Key Words: aflatoxine, probiotic, ice cream

Islamic Azad University
Damghan Branch
Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, department of food industries

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirments For
the Degree of M.sc in Food Science and Microbiology

Title
Survey Aflatoxin M1 bindinding to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 in icecream

Mahsa Tabari Ph.D.

Advisor
Abdorreza Mohammadi Nafchi Ph.D.

By
Sahar Keshavarzi

September 2014

1 Jacobfusel
2 Arbackle
3 Clarke
4 Metwally & Moran
5 Rossa et al
6 Turan et al
7 Buyong & Fennema
8 Hammes & Hertel
9 Robinson
10 Saxilen
11 Charteris et al
12 Ohand et al
13 Lim et al
14 Shah & Lankaputhra
15 Gorbach et al
16 Cross
17 Mataragas
18 Oliveira et al
19 Doherty
20 Wang et al
21 Aspergillus Parasiticus
22 Aspergillus Flavous
23 Aflatoxin
24 Bhatnagar et. al, Van Egmond
25 Bennet and.Klich
26 Brooks
27 Hwang
28 IARC
29 Jaimez et al
30 Pasteiner
31 Diener
32 Goldbatt
33 Sargeant et al
34 Wilson
35 Resanovic &.Sinovec
36 Peterson et al
37 Fratamico et al
38 Samson et al
39 Denning et al
40 Klich &pitt
41 Bennet & Cotty
42 Klich
43 Egmond & Jonger
44 Olsen

45 Salminen et al
46 Bracket and Marth

47 Lafount
48 Action Level
49 Schmitt & Hurburgh
50 Berreg et al
51 Zheng et al
52 Sydenham & Shephard
53 Degas
54 VanEgmond
55 Wiseman et al
56 Yousef&Marth
57 Galvano et al
58 Govaris& et al
59 Scott
60 Kim
61 Irac
62 Shahin et al
63 Kabak et al
64 Rodriguez & Mahoni
65Surfactants
66 Manual Selection
67 Density Method
68Dry cleaning
69 Milling
70 Bennette et al
71 Sawinski & AcsaA
72 Bata et al
73 Ciegler et al
74 Garmiene
75 Kuplulu
76Ageing

77Deionized
78Spike
79Safety & Precaution Considerations
—————

————————————————————

—————

————————————————————

‌أ

6

61

1

112

دسته‌ها: No category

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید